Aug 15, 2009

Fuel taxes

The costs of automobile usage, which may include the cost of: acquiring the vehicle, repairs, maintenance, fuel, depreciation, parking fees, tire replacement, taxes and insurance,[30] are weighed against the cost of the alternatives, and the value of the benefits - perceived and real - of vehicle usage. The benefits may include on-demand transportation, mobility, independence and convenience.[7]
Main article: Effects of the automobile on societies

Similarly the costs to society of encompassing automobile use, which may include those of: maintaining roads, land use, pollution, public health, health care, and of disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life, can be balanced against the value of the benefits to society that automobile use generates. The societal benefits may include: economy benefits, such as job and wealth creation, of automobile production and maintenance, transportation provision, society wellbeing derived from leisure and travel opportunities, and revenue generation from the tax opportunities. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far reaching implications for the nature of societies. [31]

Environmental impact
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page.
Further information: Global warming

Transportation is a major contributor to air pollution in most industrialised nations. According to the American Surface Transportation Policy Project nearly half of all Americans are breathing unhealthy air. Their study showed air quality in dozens of metropolitan areas has got worse over the last decade.[32] In the United States the average passenger car emits 11,450 lbs (5 tonnes) of carbon dioxide, along with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen.[33]

Animals and plants are often negatively impacted by automobiles via habitat destruction and pollution. Over the lifetime of the average automobile the "loss of habitat potential" may be over 50,000 square meters (538,195 square feet) based on Primary production correlations.[34]

Fuel taxes may act as an incentive for the production of more efficient, hence less polluting, car designs (e.g. hybrid vehicles) and the development of alternative fuels. High fuel taxes may provide a strong incentive for consumers to purchase lighter, smaller, more fuel-efficient cars, or to not drive. On average, today's automobiles are about 75 percent recyclable, and using recycled steel helps reduce energy use and pollution.[35] In the United States Congress, federally mandated fuel efficiency standards have been debated regularly, passenger car standards have not risen above the 27.5 miles per US gallon (8.55 L/100 km; 33.0 mpg-imp) standard set in 1985. Light truck standards have changed more frequently, and were set at 22.2 miles per US gallon (10.6 L/100 km; 26.7 mpg-imp) in 2007.[36] Alternative fuel vehicles are another option that is less polluting than conventional petroleum powered vehicles.

fuel injection

Most automobiles in use today are propelled by gasoline (also known as petrol) or diesel internal combustion engines, which are known to cause air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming.[14] Increasing costs of oil-based fuels, tightening environmental laws and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are propelling work on alternative power systems for automobiles. Efforts to improve or replace existing technologies include the development of hybrid vehicles, and electric and hydrogen vehicles which do not release pollution into the air.

Petroleum fuels
Main article: Petroleum fuel engine

Main article: Diesel engine

Diesel-engined cars have long been popular in Europe with the first models being introduced as early as 1922 [15] by Peugeot and the first production car, Mercedes-Benz 260 D in 1936 by Mercedes-Benz. The main benefit of diesel engines is a 50% fuel burn efficiency compared with 27%[16] in the best gasoline engines. A down-side of the Diesel engine is that better filters are required to reduce the presence in the exhaust gases of fine soot particulates called diesel particulate matter. Manufacturers are now starting to fit[when?] diesel particulate filters to remove the soot. Many diesel-powered cars can run with little or no modifications on 100% biodiesel and combinations of other organic oils.

Main article: Petrol engine
2007 Mark II (BMW) Mini Cooper

Gasoline engines have the advantage over diesel in being lighter and able to work at higher rotational speeds and they are the usual choice for fitting in high-performance sports cars. Continuous development of gasoline engines for over a hundred years has produced improvements in efficiency and reduced pollution. The carburetor was used on nearly all road car engines until the 1980s but it was long realised better control of the fuel/air mixture could be achieved with fuel injection. Indirect fuel injection was first used in aircraft engines from 1909, in racing car engines from the 1930s, and road cars from the late 1950s.[16] Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is now starting to appear in production vehicles such as the 2007 (Mark II) BMW Mini. Exhaust gases are also cleaned up by fitting a catalytic converter into the exhaust system. Clean air legislation in many of the car industries most important markets has made both catalysts and fuel injection virtually universal fittings. Most modern gasoline engines also are capable of running with up to 15% ethanol mixed into the gasoline - older vehicles may have seals and hoses that can be harmed by ethanol. With a small amount of redesign, gasoline-powered vehicles can run on ethanol concentrations as high as 85%. 100% ethanol is used in some parts of the world (such as Brazil), but vehicles must be started on pure gasoline and switched over to ethanol once the engine is running. Most gasoline engined cars can also run on LPG with the addition of an LPG tank for fuel storage and carburettor modifications to add an LPG mixer. LPG produces fewer toxic emissions and is a popular fuel for fork-lift trucks that have to operate inside buildings.

Rudolf Diesel was granted

His first Motorwagen was built in 1885, and he was awarded the patent for its invention as of his application on January 29, 1886. Benz began promotion of the vehicle on July 3, 1886, and about 25 Benz vehicles were sold between 1888 and 1893, when his first four-wheeler was introduced along with a model intended for affordability. They also were powered with four-stroke engines of his own design. Emile Roger of France, already producing Benz engines under license, now added the Benz automobile to his line of products. Because France was more open to the early automobiles, initially more were built and sold in France through Roger than Benz sold in Germany.

In 1896, Benz designed and patented the first internal-combustion flat engine, called a boxermotor in German. During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with 572 units produced in 1899 and, because of its size, Benz & Cie., became a joint-stock company.

Daimler and Maybach founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (Daimler Motor Company, DMG) in Cannstatt in 1890, and under the brand name, Daimler, sold their first automobile in 1892, which was a horse-drawn stagecoach built by another manufacturer, that they retrofitted with an engine of their design. By 1895 about 30 vehicles had been built by Daimler and Maybach, either at the Daimler works or in the Hotel Hermann, where they set up shop after disputes with their backers. Benz and the Maybach and the Daimler team seem to have been unaware of each other's early work. They never worked together because, by the time of the merger of the two companies, Daimler and Maybach were no longer part of DMG.

Daimler died in 1900 and later that year, Maybach designed an engine named Daimler-Mercedes, that was placed in a specially-ordered model built to specifications set by Emil Jellinek. This was a production of a small number of vehicles for Jellinek to race and market in his country. Two years later, in 1902, a new model DMG automobile was produced and the model was named Mercedes after the Maybach engine which generated 35 hp. Maybach quit DMG shortly thereafter and opened a business of his own. Rights to the Daimler brand name were sold to other manufacturers.

Karl Benz proposed co-operation between DMG and Benz & Cie. when economic conditions began to deteriorate in Germany following the First World War, but the directors of DMG refused to consider it initially. Negotiations between the two companies resumed several years later when these conditions worsened and, in 1924 they signed an Agreement of Mutual Interest, valid until the year 2000. Both enterprises standardized design, production, purchasing, and sales and they advertised or marketed their automobile models jointly, although keeping their respective brands.

On June 28, 1926, Benz & Cie. and DMG finally merged as the Daimler-Benz company, baptizing all of its automobiles Mercedes Benz, as a brand honoring the most important model of the DMG automobiles, the Maybach design later referred to as the 1902 Mercedes-35hp, along with the Benz name. Karl Benz remained a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz until his death in 1929, and at times, his two sons participated in the management of the company as well.

In 1890, Emile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began producing vehicles with Daimler engines, and so laid the foundation of the automobile industry in France.

The first design for an American automobile with a gasoline internal combustion engine was drawn in 1877 by George Selden of Rochester, New York, who applied for a patent for an automobile in 1879, but the patent application expired because the vehicle was never built. After a delay of sixteen years and a series of attachments to his application, on November 5, 1895, Selden was granted a United States patent (U.S. Patent 549,160) for a two-stroke automobile engine, which hindered, more than encouraged, development of automobiles in the United States. His patent was challenged by Henry Ford and others, and overturned in 1911.

In Britain, there had been several attempts to build steam cars with varying degrees of success, with Thomas Rickett even attempting a production run in 1860.[11] Santler from Malvern is recognized by the Veteran Car Club of Great Britain as having made the first petrol-powered car in the country in 1894[12] followed by Frederick William Lanchester in 1895, but these were both one-offs.[12] The first production vehicles in Great Britain came from the Daimler Motor Company, a company founded by Harry J. Lawson in 1896, after purchasing the right to use the name of the engines. Lawson's company made its first automobiles in 1897, and they bore the name Daimler.[12]

In 1892, German engineer Rudolf Diesel was granted a patent for a "New Rational Combustion Engine". In 1897, he built the first Diesel Engine.[9] Steam-, electric-, and gasoline-powered vehicles competed for decades, with gasoline internal combustion engines achieving dominance in the 1910s.

Although various pistonless rotary engine designs have attempted to compete with the conventional piston and crankshaft design, only Mazda's version of the Wankel engine has had more than very limited success.

Gustave Trouvé

member of a Jesuit mission in China, built the first steam-powered vehicle around 1672 which was of small scale and designed as a toy for the Chinese Emperor, that was unable to carry a driver or a passenger, but quite possibly, was the first working steam-powered vehicle ('auto-mobile').[6][7]

Although Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is often credited with building the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in about 1769, by adapting an existing horse-drawn vehicle, this claim is disputed by some[citation needed], who doubt Cugnot's three-wheeler ever ran or was stable. What is not in doubt is that Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive in 1801, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, although it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods, and would have been of little practical use.

In Russia, in the 1780s, Ivan Kulibin developed a human-pedalled, three-wheeled carriage with modern features such as a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearings; however, it was not developed further.[8]

François Isaac de Rivaz, a Swiss inventor, designed the first internal combustion engine, in 1806, which was fueled by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen and used it to develop the world's first vehicle, albeit rudimentary, to be powered by such an engine. The design was not very successful, as was the case with others, such as Samuel Brown, Samuel Morey, and Etienne Lenoir with his hippomobile, who each produced vehicles (usually adapted carriages or carts) powered by clumsy internal combustion engines.[9]

In November 1881, French inventor Gustave Trouvé demonstrated a working three-wheeled automobile that was powered by electricity. This was at the International Exhibition of Electricity in Paris.[10]

Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler, Wilhelm Maybach, and Siegfried Marcus) were working on the problem at about the same time, Karl Benz generally is acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile.[9]

An automobile powered by his own four-stroke cycle gasoline engine was built in Mannheim, Germany by Karl Benz in 1885, and granted a patent in January of the following year under the auspices of his major company, Benz & Cie., which was founded in 1883. It was an integral design, without the adaptation of other existing components, and included several new technological elements to create a new concept. This is what made it worthy of a patent.

Aug 8, 2009

The Heat

That may be a special problem. That, while three more will go to the Indonesian market. And, sure akan brisk competition in the small sedan segment 1.500cc. PT TAM alone until the end of years ago would have not been honest about the plan said the launch of Vios. "Without bermasud deny the possibility that, if possible also control the market with almost 50 percent in the mini-class sedan through SOLUNA, we will change something that is still a good market response at this time?" word Hendrayadi Lastiyoso, Communications Manager of PT TAM in an opportunity in Jakarta, has not been this long.

Plainly, SOLUNA success in the local market during this indeed can be spelled out very fantastic. Perhaps, this is owing to the big Toyota is already inherent in the Indonesian consumer. So, the person is no longer concerned with spek SOLUNA the actual "no-apanya what" is. It is important, this is Toyota. Until until-they also do not care nearly SOLUNA that the latter is better known as taxis rather than public personal or family sedan.

According to the notes of PT TAM, to early November 2002 the successful ago SOLUNA at least 40.7 percent of the small sedan market in Indonesia. For a product that is still relatively young age, performance is clearly exceptional. In fact, Honda is also a big name, or who have Beleno spek far more luxurious, gasp pursued and Reliability SOLUNA in the market.

Toyota Vios will be able to record the achievements of the future? Still difficult to be predicted. Soalnya, Vios prices that appear with better than spek SOLUNA, akan certainly more expensive. Similarly new City or new Baleno.

Indomobil not actually own the competitors tremble too-their competitors. The launch of Suzuki Aerio, five-seat MPV that actually have a machine that is still spek sekeluarga with Liana (New Baleno), seems to be test case. Although the other segment, a successful launch at the beginning of the Aerio can convince people that the Indomobil Liana will also be a good place in the Indonesian market. "Living the waiting time and readiness of our production units in Tambun, Bekasi," said Bebin Djuana, Marketing Manager of PT Indomobil Commerce International in an opportunity in Jakarta, has not been this long.

Baleno market itself is actually also not very ugly-ugly in Indonesia. When the market SOLUNA successful record of 3,952 units in the first quarter of 2002, the Beleno enough success with the 2252 unit. The market is still far below the SOLUNA. Only about 25 percent. But, clearly, this also can not be regarded lightly by Toyota. And, when the New Baleno Liana or later slide, both Toyota and Honda have also how to face more serious.

Technically, it is clear Liana, more powerful than the Baleno. The engine is able to eject 1.586cc maximum energy 104.6 hp at 5500 rpm and 144 Nm of torsi at 4000 rpm. It is equipped with a range of luxury facilities such as reinforced doors, seatbelts for five passengers, plus dual front airbags. Moreover, additional protection is presented through the steering lock is strong and can be enabled through the chip in the original key.

How about the New Honda City? Jonfis Fandy, Sales and Marketing Manager of PT Honda Prospect Motor, this is not long to ensure that New City will slide this year. Perhaps, akan less quickly than the two competitors. "Maybe the new mid-2003," he said this has not been long in Jakarta.

According Fandy, age City market in Indonesia is already long be calculated. City was first launched in 1996. "Generally, Honda make total change between four to six years," he said. Changes this time are much more spectacular.

Both Vios, Liana or the New City is in fact appear in several other Southeast Asian countries. Vios is mejeng in China, and New City is also a lot of people say get in Singapore.

Moment, three-blade 1.500cc sedan is soon to come and pull Indonesian market. Who will appear as the champion? Memaralkannya still difficult. All have a comparative advantage. All consumers have the certainty fanatis. Therefore, the delay before buy SOLUNA, Baleno or City. Moment their brethren will soon be born. Moment the market will be more glorious.


1. The Gladiators
D-cab is now no longer limited only to workers as a horse. Teknologl.dan features that applied to the d-cab, can now disejajarkan with middle-class SUV. Tertangguh not necessarily the best. Compromise terbaiklah entitled to occupy the highest throne. ... detail
2. New Toyota Wish
Wish Toyota family car now comes with more fresh, more aggressive look and more sporti. Wish this generation was introduced in Japan last week. Latest generation engine makes 15% more efficient from the preceding. ... detail
3. You a Provençal: Autobild, Wednesday April 08, 2009
Car test our long-term, Toyota Vios G bertransmisi auto mileage has exceeded 30,000 km. During the journey up to that distance, the reliability of the Small Sedan Vios is really teruji. ... detail
4. Maju Kena Kena Backward: Automotive, Thursday 09 April 2009
Klan Corolla, Civic and Lancer had become a 'deadly trio' sedan class to the era of the 90's end. Sales demand sweet with a large market share. ... detail
5. New Toyota Wish
Wish Toyota family car now comes with more fresh, more aggressive look and more sporti. Wish this generation was introduced in Japan last week. Latest generation engine makes 15% more efficient from the preceding. ... detail
6. Scion iQ Concept
Toyota Scion iQ display in the exhibition concept car New York International Motor Show began last week. Car is a tiny model of the latest rumor circulating since Scion Toyota iQ introduced years ago. ... detail
7. Stay Out of gas Pun Served
Be happy with a Lexus 250h HS. Luxury car that will cruise in the summer in the United States have been equipped with various safety and security features that have not been there in the versions before Lexus. ... detail
8. There is More Toyota SOLUNA cock? They used to Speech Lyrics
Nearly no one product that escape from the Toyota consumer interests. Including sedan that had started long ini.Toh, do not go the price collapse. Even former version taksinya also recognized potential consumers still have high prices. ... detail
9. New Toyota Wish - The athletic, vitality Full
Although not be regarded "cars in demand," Toyota Wish has the market itself. Create confidence that Toyota Japan released a new Wish. The engine more vigorous, more athletic bodinya. ... detail
10. People Carrier contention - Autobild, Friday 17 April 2009
Suzuki and Toyota compete in the tight crevice transporter family. Daihatsu time now participate in this class play with a different concept. Finally, change the face of Suzuki APV Arena to attract consumers. Who will be the ruler in this class?

Toyota sedan of the National Automotive Market

Jakarta - Toyota Sedan the national automotive market. In November 2008, Toyota still retain dominasinya sedan on the market with total sales of 1,319 units of sedan or the 60.6% market share. While the year 2008 (Jan-Nov), total sales at Toyota sedan class as much as 16,392 units sedan. Where the Vios, Corolla Altis and Camry became the ruler in each class.

Vios in November to become market leader in the mini-class sedan led the market with 66.2% market share where the successful sale of a number of 602 units. Throughout January to November 2008 this was a whole Vios to be the best in its class with a total sales figure of 5470 units.

While in the class small sedan, Toyota Corolla Altis to be the best with the market share of 36% with sales figures in November as many as 141 units.

Market for medium sedan, Toyota Camry remains the best with the market with the successful sales figures of 208 units and the market was 59.1%.

"We are very grateful to the consumers who remain loyal to the Toyota. We always provide the best product on the Toyota, the Toyota-class sedan is to provide the best of the comfort, safety, performance and best value and class. This is the sedan that Toyota is the best in Indonesia. " said Johnny Darmawan, President Director of PT Toyota-Astra Motor.